But before Parliament stopped the Christmas recess, MPs approved Mr Johnson`s bill by 358 votes to 234. The bill is now moving on to the second phase of the parliamentary process – the so-called committee phase. It will be the subject of a thorough analysis over the next three days, with MEPs proposing amendments. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the political declaration and replaced the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” with respect to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, a trade fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the amendment excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms. [27] In addition, the Equal Competition Mechanism has been postponed from the legally binding withdrawal agreement to the political declaration,[24] and the line of the political statement that “the United Kingdom will consider taking into account alignment with trade union rules in the relevant areas” has been removed. [26] Although fishing is a very small part of the European economy, it could be the first issue to be resolved: both sides have promised to reach an agreement on fishing quotas by 1 July 2020. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union.

The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed. [19] On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be paused. [38] [12] Members debated at second reading on Monday, 13 January, the fundamental issues of the law. Among the participants were the opposition spokesman for leaving the EU and the president of the Liberal Democrats in the Lords. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement[10] the largest vote against the British government in history. [31] The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons. [32] A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons. [34] [35] [36] An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes. [37] No. First, the EU and the UK must publish their negotiating objectives.

However, after the sabre-rattling of recent days in the United Kingdom, both sides have a pretty good idea of what the positions of the other parties are. Nevertheless, the peers decided not to continue the fight with the Commons and agreed to let the law pass. Discussions on establishing a border in the Irish Sea can begin on 1 February. Special committees of British and European representatives may meet to agree on technical details on the implementation of the Northern Ireland Protocol, an agreement that leaves the region in compliance with EU rules and Britain a separate status. If there is a pause, there is no time for businesses to lose the pitfall before January 31.